Rulers index

The diplomatic letters were sent to Batavia Castle by hundreds of different kings, sultans, governors and other power holders from across a very broad region which included not only the Indonesian archipelago, but the whole of Asia, and stretching west as far as the Middle East, Africa and Europe. All of these rulers had their successors, and this is also evident when studying these letters. In different ways, this page provides a clear overview of all the rulers found in these letters, including their kingdoms’ locations, the period of their respective reigns, and the amount of letters they sent and received.

The top ten diplomats and monarchs who corresponded with Batavia by diplomatic letter are presented here:

Download the full overview here of the rulers and ordered by their total number of letters

Download the full overview here, ordered geographically and chronologically

Download more background information about the rulers and the chronology of their reign, as presented here in a separate overview by Maarten Manse and Simon Kemper

Browsing and searching for rulers

The names of the rulers engaged in this diplomatic correspondence can be browsed and searched for. This includes both the original correspondents and those receiving the letters. The ruler’s names are standardized according to modern spelling and are arranged alphabetically. Rulers may have different alternative names in the letters, and these alternative names are also mentioned for each ruler. For research purposes, the ruler’s alternative names will all direct the researcher to the standardized name.